The Importance of (NAD) Nicotine Adenine Dinucleotide in the Body

The Importance of (NAD) Nicotine Adenine Dinucleotide in the body


NAD is a coenzyme consisting of two nucleotides joined through a phosphate group. Its molecular formula is C21H27N7O14P2. It is found in almost all the cells of our body. NAD is the key chemical substance of energy generation, and it is a metabolite involved in the cellular metabolic pathway. It’s important for mitochondrial functioning and health. Sir Arthur Harden and William John Young discovered it in 1906 while studying fermentation. 

How is NAD formed in our body?

NAD is formed in our bodies by biosynthesis.

There are three known pathways:

  • Kynurenine (de novo synthesis) pathway
  • The salvage pathway
  • Preiss-Handler pathway

Kynurenine pathway

It occurs in our cells from tryptophan; tryptophan is converted to NAD in the cytosol of our cells. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid found in meat, cheese, egg, fish, etc

Preiss-Handler pathway

Preiss-Handler pathway takes place in our cells from nicotinic acid. Nicotinic acid is present in dietary supplements. Nicotinic acid is first converted to nicotinic acid mononucleosis by an enzyme NAPRT. The second step is the conversion of nicotinic acid mononucleosis to nicotinic acid dinuclease by an enzyme NMNAT. The third step is the conversion of nicotinic acid dinuclease to NAD by NAD synthetase.

Salvage pathway

The salvage pathway involves synthesis from vitamin B3. These include nicotinamide, nicotinamide riboside, and nicotinamide ribonucleotide.

How does NAD act in our body?

NAD works as the media for transferring electrons from one molecule to another. Hence, important for regulating various metabolic reactions in our body. These reactions generate energy in our bodies. Without NAD, our body is not able to generate sufficient energy and survive. NAD also controls circadian rhythm in our body.

SIDE NOTE: If this type of health education and longevity information interests you, take a moment to review the Spencer Institute Integrative Health Coach Certification. 

Importance of NAD

The importance of NAD was studied in 1906; the most important process is poly ADP ribosylation. ADP is broken into ADP ribose and NAD; ADP ribose is recycled while NAD combines with a protein. It forms PARPs, which rely on NAD for its function. Another group of proteins, Sirtuins, also depends on NAD for their function. Sirtuins are referred to as the guardians of the genome. They have an important role in cellular homeostasis. Cellular homeostasis is important for keeping cell in balance.

What happens when NAD levels are reduced in the body?

Reduced NAD levels lead to various problems, including obesity and diabetes mellitus. Obesity causes various other diseases like diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, high blood pressure, liver problems, etc. It prevents metabolic and age-related disorders.

Aside from natural methods or boosting your NAD levels as discussed in this article, you can very effectively and quickly increase your NAD levels through supplementation.

You can use any of the following:
Sublingual Liquid NAD
NMN capsules (precursor)
NADH capsules (precursor)
Transdermal (prescription needed)
IV Drip Therapy (most effective/expensive)

What are the various functions of NAD?

NAD is an important coenzyme with various important functions:

1. Muscle function

NAD is crucial for muscle function and exercise. It is key to maintaining normal mitochondrial function and energy output. Increased NAD maintains fitness, and it is essential for exercise.

2. Cardiovascular disorders

High blood pressure damages vascular structures, which leads to various cardiovascular abnormalities. High NAD uptake boosts heart functions. It blocks arteries that lead to stroke. NAD levels give protection and treat cardiovascular problems. NAD protects against damage to the heart caused by high blood pressure and increased flow.

3. Neurodegeneration

With age, there is an increased prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders. There is an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and cognitive impairment. NAD prevents protein build-up that disrupts cell function and improves cognitive function. NAD keeps the brain healthy and prevents neurodegeneration. It protects from brain cell death.

4. Effect on aging

With age, levels of NAD fall in our body, indicating impairment in metabolism and age-related diseases. This damages our DNA. The reason is that PARPs cannot function in the absence of NAD, and their DNA repair function does not occur. There is an accumulation of damaged, nonfunctional DNA. It causes chromosomal instability with aging.

5. Lipid-lowering effects

NAD has important lipid-lowering effects in our bodies. It decreases the level of LDL cholesterol in our bodies. It increases HDL cholesterol which is beneficial for our body. 

6. Energy generation

NADH is important for the energy generation process. Its supplements are used as medicines. It’s also involved in Krebs’s cycle, glycolysis, and electron transport chain. It generates energy in the form of ATP.

7. Miscellaneous uses

  • People use NAD supplements to improve sports performance, younger complexion, and age-related diseases.
  • It also prevents age-related disorders.
  • People also use it to boost energy levels in the body.
  • Enzymes in our immune system also consume NAD; with age, levels of these hormones increase. It increases the consumption of NAD, and levels of NAD in our body fall. 

How to boost NAD levels?

To boost NAD levels, various supplements are used. It’s increased by increasing its synthesis.  These are:

Fasting and exercise

Fasting and exercise boost our mental function, increase health, and increase NAD levels in our body. Fasting and exercise generate the synthesis of NAD in our bodies. Fasting and exercise are excellent ways of boosting NAD levels in our bodies.

NAD precursor supplementation

NMN and NR are NAD supplements that are used for NAD synthesis. It occurs by salvage pathway. They increase NAD synthesis and NAD levels in our blood. They prevent mitochondrial damage, age-related disorders, etc. NR chloride, also called NIAGEN, is recognized as a safe NAD supplement. Consumption of 100, 300, and 1000 mg NR increases blood NAD by 22%, 51%, and 142% in our body within two weeks. It increases non-fat body mass and sleeping metabolic rate. It also increases the levels of acetylcarnitine in our bodies.

Aside from natural methods or boosting your NAD levels as discussed in this article, you can very effectively and quickly increase your NAD levels through supplementation.

You can use any of the following:
Sublingual Liquid NAD
NMN capsules (precursor)
NADH capsules (precursor)
Transdermal (prescription needed)
IV Drip Therapy (most effective/expensive)

What is the role of NAD in mitochondrial functioning?

NAD is important for mitochondrial function. It is involved in oxidation-reduction reactions and plays an important role in signaling mechanisms. It is important for oxidation-reduction reactions, oxidative phosphorylation, tricyclic acid cycle, etc. The maintenance of the NAD pool is important for mitochondrial function.

NAD also affects the level of cardiolipin in our body. Cardiolipin deficiency causes mitochondrial dysfunction and BARTH syndrome. In BARTH syndrome, there is decreased oxidative phosphorylation, reduced tricarboxylic acid, increased beta lactate, and altered NAD redox metabolism. NMN improves mitochondrial function, and it is also used for the management of Barth syndrome persons.

What is the role of NAD in clients struggling with extra weight?

Obesity is a global problem nowadays. 40 percent of people are obese. In obese people, NAD reduces LDL cholesterol. In obese people, exercise, as well as NAD supplements, have been proven beneficial for obese people.

Getting Started

NAD is a coenzyme essential for various oxidation-reduction reactions in our bodies. It plays several important functions, including transport of electrons, muscle function, prevention of neurodegenerative disorders, obesity, etc. Its levels in our body are improved by exercise, fasting, and NAD supplementation.

Aside from natural methods or boosting your NAD levels as discussed in this article, you can very effectively and quickly increase your NAD levels through supplementation.

You can use any of the following:
Sublingual Liquid NAD
NMN capsules (precursor)
NADH capsules (precursor)
Transdermal (prescription needed)
IV Drip Therapy (most effective/expensive)

If you want to help clients with food, diet, weight management and improving the results of their fitness routines, the Fitness Nutrition Coach course is for you. You will learn about optimal nutrition, including proven techniques for increasing energy, optimal health and decreased dependence on medications. Instantly increase your job and career opportunities with this popular professional credential.

If you are interested in learning more about the protocols for optimizing gut microbiome, metabolic health and personalized nutrition, you will want to check out the Integrative Health Coach Certification.

Become a Certified Holistic Health Coach. Holistic health and well-being are essential to overall life success. Now you can earn a credential and gain the skills to help your clients achieve this success.

NESTA coaching programs are open to anyone with a desire to learn and help others. There are no prerequisites.

That’s it for now.

Take action!

NESTA | Spencer Institute

PS: Click here to see many helpful business/career resources

NESTA Pinterest