Solutions for Trainers and Coaches Who Want a Change Now
COVID-19 has changed the fitness industry. We discuss it in detail here.
Many of us have realized that we want something other than gym ownership and higher overhead expenses.
Without a doubt, gyms, fitness centers and health clubs offer things outdoor fitness cannot, such as power cages, Olympic bars, a full line of selectorized equipment and a helpful front desk staff.
But, training and coaching your clients outdoors does offer many advantages, such as no overhead costs, endless options, fresh air, connection with nature and watching the sunrise or sunset as you exercise.
Before we go on, remember one thing. You can always train clients from your home and outdoors. You can split the sessions in a variety of ways. Here’s a free home gym business system.
Here are just some ways you can work with clients outdoors:
- small group
- large group
- mat Pilates
- dumbbell workouts
- kettlebell workouts
- battling ropes
- jump rope
- martial arts conditioning
- walk while coaching
- hike while coaching
- rock climbing
- sitting on a park bench and do sports psychology coaching
- deep sand running on the beach
- cone drills
- running on the track
- trail running
- triathlon coaching
- obstacle course
- slackline training
- run/walk/lunge stairs
- use of a park’s PAR course (Park And Recreation fitness equipment such as pull up bars)
- TRX and other suspension training (hang from tree or pull up bar)
- resistance tubes
- functional fitness
- partner drills
- and many more….
Here are the places you can consider training/coaching your clients outdoors:
- local park
- local lake
- local beach
- grass area near a harbor
- local school when out of session
- local harbor area
- national park
- state park
- you can do a “mobile fitness flash mob” like PURSUIT where no special location is needed
- And, REMEMBER, you can always train someone in your garage/backyard/front yard (free training)
Why Outdoor Bootcamp Workouts are So Effective
When you factor in overhead expenses, COVID-19 regulations for gyms and massive shifts in the fitness industry, the outdoors have more to offer than the traditional gym. For example, the vitamin D gained from natural sunlight, the fresh air (as long as you’re not running on a busy city street) and freedom of movement (functional movement) beat the sound of cardio machines and non-adjustable air-conditioning of the gym hands down.
Bootcamp workouts emphasize total body functional training and strength training. A typical outdoor fitness camp usually features a small group of people in an open outdoor public space like a park. The types of exercise aim to burn calories fast and improve fitness and strength.
Much of the flashy (and sometimes cumbersome) equipment in our gyms actually contributes to postural distortion, inflexibility and even muscle weakness. Exercise machines may be making you less “functionally fit.” Exercises such as hiking, pull-ups, push-ups, and lunging have us move the way our bodies were designed to move.
A classic example of this is running on a treadmill, where we run on a moving belt rather than static ground. So, the ground is moving underneath us, rather than us moving over the ground. In this case, we dominate the movement with our thighs and hip flexors, while barely using the gluteal muscles or hamstrings. Plus the “low impact” nature of some machines means there’s a lack of demand placed on the skeletal system. This reduces the “bone density stimulation”.
By contrast, outdoor fitness offers us, in many cases, the correct amount of muscle stimulation, impact and “load-bearing” to create long-term benefits for our health. Athletes who train outdoors will dramatically increase their functional fitness over their competitors who simply train in a man-made environment.
Exercising outdoors requires us to overcome gravity, ground reaction forces and environmental factors such as wind, heat and cold, as well as changes in terrain. Due to these ever-changing demands, our bodies are required to use more muscles than in comparable gym-based exercises and as a result, more calories are used. Overall, your body becomes better able to adapt to changing stimulus, varied difficulties, climactic change, and unforeseen physiological variables that just don’t exist indoors.
You have to admit it, gym exercise can become dull. Running, rowing or cycling for 20 minutes at a time, as well as repeatedly counting to 10 on resistance machines can lose its appeal very quickly.
You just can’t beat a bike ride along the beach, enjoying a PAR course, a run through forest trails, hiking through the countryside, or climbing a mountain for getting that real sense of achievement. Regardless of how far you go, there’s something very satisfying about reaching a destination. Having a cardio machine beep at you and having a display announce, “Congratulations, you are done…. Good job!” just isn’t enough to keep dedicated outdoor fitness enthusiasts inside!
Starting an Outdoor Boot Camp Business
Today’s environment offers a lot of opportunities for personal trainers and business owners to reach more people than ever before. You just have to know what you need to succeed and how to apply it to your own business.
How to Stand Out
New fitness boot camps pop up every year and if you want to stay in business and stand out from the rest, you need to find your focus. If you’re going to enter into a niche like getting brides into shape before their wedding or precisely following a military-style workout, make sure it attracts the right audience. Finding your focus means writing out a detailed plan of how you will launch your business, the procedures, and systems you’ll have in place to manage it and finally, how you will keep your clients coming back for more week on week.
Where Will You Host Your Training Sessions?
Your location will be one of the most important decisions you make when starting your outdoor training or Boot camp business. Using parks as free space is a very appealing part of a boot camp business but it doesn’t mean it comes without any costs. Some cities require permits for hosting group workouts in public places. Although this cost is considerably less than renting a gym or studio space, it’s still a price that needs to be factored into your business plan. Make sure to carry out thorough research once you’ve narrowed down your potential location. Double-check what permits and costs need to be arranged before you start organizing your first boot camp.
What Equipment Will You Use?
When you’re just starting out, don’t spend a ton on brand new equipment. Use your skills from being a personal trainer or fitness instructor and make use of your environment. A great workout can just be a simple combination of cardio, body weight, and partner exercises. As well as the cost of new equipment you also need to think about the issues that arise with trying to get heavy equipment to your outdoor fitness training or boot camp location.
Equipment that works really well for boot camp programs and outdoor fitness training groups include cones, resistance bands, tires, agility ladders, kettlebells, medicine, balls, jump ropes, and battle ropes.
What Will You Charge?
Landing on a price system that works for you and your business can be tricky. Set a fair price for your services and stick with it. Whether you offer one free session, pay as you go system or a 10-week program that will whip your clients into great shape is up to you and your financial needs.
When a client signs up for a set number of weeks, it not only helps get cash flow into the business quickly, it also helps with their commitment and motivation to show up every week. As well as weekly programs, monthly memberships are a fantastic way to grow your business. By offering outdoor fitness training and boot camp programs, it gives clients the time to get hooked on your brand and fitness. If you plan to use more than one location, this widens your net of potential clients. You can then offer multiple location memberships as well as single location memberships to make the most out of your audience.
Designing a Schedule
When people start to hear about you and visit your website, the first thing they’ll look at is your locations and next will be what they see on your schedule. Set your class time and make it something that works for you. When initially designing your schedule, think about how workouts will vary. Your clients don’t want to feel like they are doing the same exercises for all sessions if they’re going at different times. Offer a good mixture of workouts and consider a unique weekend location that all your members can easily access.
Acquiring a Location if You Want to Train a Large Group in a Single Outdoor Location
Before reading this next sections, note that the PURSUIT outdoor fitness training system doesn’t require you to have a fixed outdoor location.
Location, location, location! Realtors and homeowners know that phrase all too well! And, so will you! The good news is that we will provide you with the “type” of location that will be most conducive to conducting your boot camp, and we will provide you with the “how to” of gaining the access to that location. YOU, however, must find that perfect location.
Schools and parks are optimal for this type of program. Parks may require you to obtain a permit. Schools may be very receptive to a donation. By holding your camp in a school yard you have privacy, access to more equipment, ample parking and gain a presence in that school. You may contact the editor of their school newspaper and have a story written about your boot camp. You could attract the attention of student’s parents and the school’s staff. Because your camp is at 5:30 a.m.(in many cases) it will not interfere with any school activities.
When contacting the City Parks and Recreation, you will be very low-key regarding your camp,“You are simply a fitness instructor that would like to exercise with a group of women at their location.” The more low-key you are, the more apt you are to not being required to have a permit. You are not being misleading. Some people simply don’t get the concept of “Boot Camp” and picture people getting hurt or something done in a hazardous way, like in some of those well-known TV shows.
When acquiring a location, you must consider the noise potential for any local neighbors. It may only take one complaint to cause problems for your camp.
Your location should have a restroom nearby. It should have adequate lighting. Remember it is dark many months at 5:30 a.m. Your location should be safe and have adequate parking. If you are in a grassy area, check to make sure the sprinklers don’t go off during your camp time.
You don’t need much at your location. It would be ideal to have a set of stairs, a grassy area, a concrete area, picnic benches, a running or bike path nearby. A large parking lot would certainly suffice. But, you can be just as successful with something as simple as a large open space the size of a basketball court. It doesn’t have to be fancy or elaborate. It would be ideal to have your outdoor and indoor location at the same place so when people pull up in the morning they do not need to travel to another location if its raining or too cold.
Other idea’s for indoor locations are any multipurpose room at a community center or church, a martial arts studio, dance studio, parking garage, cafeteria, indoor mall, warehouse or any open area.
You will soon learn how easy it is to use the barest of space.
Circuit Training for Outdoor Classes and Boot Camps
A circuit basically means that you are moving in a circle going from one station to the next You may use the natural environment such as stairs, bleachers, park bench, playground equipment, a wall, basketball court and more. You can also include a few props of your own. You can create various stations using color cones as markers for the start of a station. In one station they may jump rope for thirty rotations, then move to another station to do thirty squats, the another for 30 dips, next 30 crunches and so on. The circuits can be set up as all cardio stations. You can do all upper body, all lower body, all core or alternate between upper, lower, core cardio – or any other safe combination.…you will see the various options within your training.
When having a group do a circuit, its best to progress them by time rather than by reps. That allows for everyone to move at the same time versus being self paced which can lead to bottle-necking at a station that has limited equipment or space. In week one each station may be 30 seconds. As weeks progress, progress up to 60 seconds.
A common error trainers make in designing their circuit is to tell their campers what they are going to do at each station before getting started. This is wasted time. They won’t remember past the first station what you told them to do. Also, they have been doing NOTHING just standing there listening to you while you are explaining everything. They should NEVER be just standing there doing NOTHING. Instead, get them going through the first element, and tell them as they go as to what is next. Having each station labeled with an index card or dry erase board is helpful. Have them start with a station they know –such as push ups. Then tell them to watch the person on their right (the direction you will be rotating) so they will know what they will be doing next.
Never introduce anything for the first time in a circuit. You can’t be there at the “new exercise” station the entire time teaching them, because you need to be able to continually monitor your entire circuit.
Remember it is important to keep variety in your camps. While repetition is important during learning, you don’t want them to get bored.
Outdoor Fitness Boot Camp Programming Ideas
One of the challenges of boot camp workout design is that there are 20 sessions in a camp (on average for a month-long class) and some people attend 3 days a week (12 sessions) others 4 days a week (16 sessions) and others 5 days a week. Coaches give the campers the flexibility to attend on the days that best fit their schedule, however its always the ideal M-W F 3 day schedule or off mid-week on the 4 day a week schedule. Its possible someone signs up for 16 sessions and attends 3 consecutive weeks taking 1 week off.
You need to keep in mind balancing out cardio, strength and muscle endurance. You do not want to repeat exercises two days in a row. You also don’t want to heavily target one muscle group two days in a row. Going with total body workouts especially in the beginning weeks and in the start up of camp is always best.
A sample 60-minute boot camp workout, might look like this:
Warm Up 6 – 8 minutes
Cardio 12 – 20 minutes
Strength 20 – 30 minutes
Stretching 7 – 10 minutes
In the beginning of a new camp and at the beginning of each camp, you want to spend more time warming up and stretching. As camp progresses you can spend a little less time warming up and stretching and more time on the strength and cardio. Your warm up and cool down will also depend on the weather, the intensity of the workout and your population.
Your cardio segments will rarely include continuous running. If it did, you would lose the bulk of your campers quickly. The workouts must have purpose, varied intensity, be progressive and allow for variations based on ability level. You may include an obstacle course, circuit, traveling cardio with stations, minute drills and more.
For your strength segments you can use traditional body weight exercises, dumbbell moves, fitness bands and an unlimited number of techniques including super setting, breakdowns, one and a half rep ranges, compound moves, change the speed of motion, and more.
You can also alternate cardio and strength moves. An upper, lower, core, cardio circuit is always a good choice for one of the workouts during the first week for a total body routine.
Day one is a base building day and you will explain this to your class. It is wise to do a little bit of everything so they are familiar with their muscles and terminology. You are always educating throughout the class. This is not you workout. You are there to educate, give feedback, correct, inspire, motivate. You are constantly surveying the campers for form and intensity. Campers LOVE to hear their names and specific feedback. They want to know they are doing it right.
After a proper dynamic warm-up, you may have them do a few different exercises for the back, do a short run, or something cardio. Then chest, short run, shoulders, short run, triceps, short run, biceps, short run, legs, then core. All activities on this day are done at a moderate level. For those that can’t run, they walk or do a walk/run if they can. Short is a relative term. You decide what is best for your group; maybe a distance that would take two to three minutes. To keep the group together you can incorporate the “loop around”. This is when the front runners return from their run, they turn around and go back out in the direction they came from and loop around behind the last person and return again. This way the slow people don’t feel so bad having the group wait for their return. When there is any activity that requires someone to be last, that person would be you.
You should avoid starting a new segment of camp until everyone has returned from a walk or run. If you do, those returning late will feel left-out and easily become discouraged with their lack of speed and aerobic conditioning. You may consider having those returning first to do jumping-jacks, or jog in place, or a combination of both until everyone has returned before beginning the next segment. Always have something prepared for the faster group until everyone else can catch up. Its very important to think through your entire camp to ensure you will have something for your most fit and also make your least fit feel accomplished. Teaching to the middle ability level is recommended and then give variations for the lowest and highest fitness levels.
The next day you might focus on shoulders and legs as an example. Then on Wed. you may do a big circuit involving core. The bigger your class, the more you will have to space your stations…remember that. Then on Thurs. zero in on triceps and biceps.
The first Friday of camp, is the timed mile and push up test. When they complete the testing, have something ready for them to do such as a list of exercises, an obstacle course to feed into or some other drills before everyone is regrouped and you can lead them in the next activity.
Initially you will lead them as a group. As the weeks progress and they begin to learn the exercises and execute them with good form, they can do more independent exercises. Remember, these are just examples. There are always options/exceptions.
Keep your camp moving! Keep educating them. No one should ever be standing and waiting. If they truly need a break, please let them. Always let them know to take a break when they need it and start back up when they can. You are educated, share your knowledge. Show them where they should be feeling “it”, tell them where they should be feeling it, and also tell them the specific muscle. For example…if you are doing triceps kick-backs…As they are doing the minute long set, you should be walking around adjusting their form as need be and sharing that they are working the triceps, the upper back portion of their arm. Exhale as they extend their arm and lift the weight, inhale to lower. Exhale lift, inhale lower. Feed them information! The more knowledge you share, the more successful they will be, thus you and your camp will be too. Constantly remind them of the “correct form and technique”. This is one of the many things that will keep them coming back!
Make your exercises have a logical progression. Know what your objective is before you begin. Is your objective to fatigue the muscles of the legs, or increase their anaerobic threshold, or to focus on functional training? Just make sure you know what your objective is for the day, then safely achieve it.
Make your cues short and concise. Stay motivated, and keep your campers motivated.
Some coaches have experience in the sport of triathlon and have decided to build a triathlon coaching business. Coaching can be done online and at a pool, a lake, the ocean, the track, a home gym, a park, the road, the trail or the path. You have options. The demographic of a triathlete is like no other in sport. On average, competitors have a much higher level of education and annual income as compared to nearly all other sports. This means your clients will be driven, smart and hard-working individuals. And, they can afford your services. These are great characteristics of a client. ITCA (a division of NESTA) offers you a complete triathlon coach certification and business system. No gym. No problem.
Outdoor fitness training can run very smoothly 95% of the time. In some cases, it’s VERY different. So, below we share vital information you need to know to be a world-class outdoor fitness trainer and coach. Seldom are temperatures extreme for people reading this article. But, it does happen.
Since we are an education association, we’re going to dive into some science here:
You could go the hard-core route of …”Rain or Shine…you will do it!!” However, your absentee rate will be high, hence your success rate may be low! The best choice is to have an “Option B” for your inclement weather days. Let’s fact it, your campers are not training to be navy seals and depending on your geographic location, the cut off for unpleasant weather may be different. For example, 40 degrees in Boca Raton Florida may be frigid, but in Canada, that’s considered mild.
Some parks have a covered picnic area which will work for that “occasional” rain day. However, if you live in an area that has a season of undesirable outdoor weather, you may need an indoor location. It would be ideal to have your indoor and outdoor location at the same place. If that is not possible, you need a system to communicate with your campers in the early morning hours to direct them to the location for that session.
Be very clear with your group about “rain days” as well as indoor and outdoor days Let them know to go to that designated site if it is raining. Let them know what constitutes rain…is it a drizzle? We clarify rain as: “If you need to use your windshield wipers, then it is considered enough rain to call an indoor workout. Provide your campers with an address if the location is different than your normal location. You want to eliminate any possible confusion.
Create a list of a few options you have for rain day locations, perhaps you will need to drive around in your area and see what possibilities you have. Think about any large covered area, dance studios, martial arts facilities, school gyms, churches and so on.
When exercising outdoors with your clients, you must be aware of how they are acclimating to temperate change. It is your responsibility to educate your clients on heat illness. It is also your responsibility to monitor their external indicators of heat exhaustion or heat stroke. Some of the following information is very detailed and medically oriented while other aspects are based on direct application in the field. Both segments of the learning process are important.
Heat cramps were first described among coal miners in 1923, eventually becoming known as ‘miner’s’, ‘fireman’s’ ‘stoker’s’, ‘cane-cutter’s’ or simply ‘heat’ cramps. The popular belief that cramps are caused by severe dehydration and large sodium chloride losses that develop during hot conditions has no scientific basis. After a lifetime studying sodium balance in persons exercising in the desert heat, researchers concluded that salt deficiency heat cramps had never been proven to exist and illustrated ‘christening by conjecture’. Cramps can occur at rest, or during or after exercise undertaken in any environmental conditions; they are specific neither to exercise nor to exercise in the heat. The more modern hypothesis proposes that cramps probably result from alterations in spinal neural reflex activity activated by fatigue in susceptible individuals. The term ‘heat cramps’ should be abandoned as it clouds understanding of the possible neural nature of this connection.
Management of cramps
Maintaining the muscle to length is one effective therapy. Icing and physical therapy of the affected muscle may also help. The Boston Marathon medical team treats muscle cramps with intravenous normal saline and intravenous magnesium therapy is used in the Hawaiian Ironman Triathlon but clinical trials of either treatment have yet to be published.
Fluid overload – hyponatremia (loss of sodium or body salt)
Signs of hyponatremia: nausea, headache, cramps, confusion, slurred speech, bloating and swollen hands.
An important differential diagnosis in athletes who seek medical attention at an event, particularly an ultramarathon, undertaken in the heat, is hyponatremia. Athletes who become unconscious during or after ultradistance running or triathlon races and whose rectal temperatures are not elevated should be considered to have symptomatic hyponatremia until measurement of serum sodium concentration refutes the diagnosis. We emphasize that dehydration does not cause unconsciousness until it is associated with renal failure with uremia or hepatic failure. To achieve such a weight loss, a 50 kg athlete would require 10 hours of high-intensity exercise at a sweat rate of 1 liter/hr without any fluid replacement.
Athletes with symptomatic hyponatremia and serum sodium concentrations below 129 mmol/L are overhydrated by between 2 and 6 L. The physician should be alerted to this diagnosis in a patient with altered level of consciousness and very dilute urine. If the patient is conscious, he or she may complain of feeling bloated or ‘swollen’. A helpful clinical sign is that rings, race identification bracelets, and watchstraps feel and are noticeably tighter. The race bracelet is a particularly useful indicator, as it is usually loose fitting before a race.
Management of hyponatremia
Under no circumstances should the fluid be given to unconscious or semiconscious athletes with hyponatremia. All unconscious hyponatremic patients in a series recovered spontaneously, without treatment other than fluid restriction and the occasional use of diuretics. Providing fluid to patients who are unconscious because of cerebral edema delays recovery and may produce a fatal result, as appears to have happened in isolated cases in recent years.
It is essential that physicians caring for athletes with hyponatremia are aware of the correct management of this condition. The current management includes:
- Bladder catheterization to establish that urine is dilute, indicating a state of fluid overload and is being passed at an ever-increasing rate during recovery. Spontaneous recovery will occur if adequate amounts of urine (>500 ml/hr) are passed
- No fluids by mouth. Salt tablets and sodium-containing foods can be given
- High sodium (3%) solutions can be given intravenously provided they are infused slowly (50 ml/hr).
Other causes of exercise-related collapse in hot weather
Heatstroke and exercise-associated collapse is the most likely causes of distress or collapse while exercising in hot weather. It is, however, important to consider other possible causes of distress or collapse that may also occur in these conditions. A list of possible causes of the collapse and the likely circumstances surrounding that collapse is shown in Table 48.3. This highlights the importance of determining the rectal temperature as the first step in the assessment of the collapsed athlete in hot weather. A rectal temperature of greater than 40 degrees C (104-106 degrees F) indicates heat illness is the most likely cause of the collapse. A rectal temperature of fewer than 40 degrees C (104 degrees F) should encourage the clinician to consider other causes of the collapse.
It is important to remember that athletes suffering from hyperthermia and hypothermia may present in the same event. The faster runners with their increased heat production may present with hyperthermia, while slower runners, particularly those who have stopped to a walk, may present later in the day with hypothermia. The possibility of hypothermia is increased if a cold wind is present or if the temperature drops over the duration of the event.
Athletes are able to cope much better with hot or humid conditions if they are acclimatized. The human body adjusts to exposure to hot conditions by increasing blood volume and venous tone and, particularly, by alterations to the sweating mechanism. The main ways in which the sweating mechanism is affected are by:
- earlier onset of sweating
- an increased amount of sweating
- increased dilution of the sweat
These changes result in increased heat loss for a given set of environmental conditions and a smaller rise in body temperature.
There is a considerable dispute regarding the ideal length of time required for heat acclimatization, although a minimum of two weeks is probably required when coming from a cool climate to a hot or humid climate. One problem that reduces the effectiveness of heat acclimatization is that in the week or two prior to a major event, the athlete is often tapering (i.e. reducing the amount of training). While there is some effect on heat acclimatization in the rested state, it may be necessary to perform relatively intensive exercise to maximize acclimatization. Therefore, exposure to a warmer environment should occur for a minimum of two weeks.
A number of other factors affect acclimatization. If the athlete wishes to compete in a hot and humid environment, it is necessary to acclimatize for both heat and humidity. Training in a hot, dry environment provides only partial acclimatization for a hot, humid environment. Another factor affecting heat acclimatization is the presence or absence of air-conditioning. To maximize acclimatization, the athlete should be exposed to environmental conditions 24 hours a day. If the only exposure to the hot conditions is during training and the athlete then returns to an air-conditioned environment, the effectiveness of acclimatization is reduced. Therefore, it is recommended athletes spend a minimum of two weeks acclimatizing at the site of competition or in an environment very similar to that anticipated for competition. Some intense training should be performed during this period and air-conditioning should be restricted to night-time for sleeping
Although it is possible to assist the acclimatization process by exercising in a heat chamber for 3 hours per day prior to departure, it is only partially effective and should be used as an adjunct rather than as a replacement for full acclimatization. Wearing impermeable clothing while exercising may also make a small contribution to acclimatization.
Guidelines for the prevention of heat illness
Most cases of heat illness could be prevented if the following guidelines are followed:
- Perform adequate conditioning. The athlete must have trained
appropriately and be conditioned for the planned activity.
- Undergo acclimatization if competing in unaccustomed heat or humidity
- Avoid adverse conditions. Event organizers should ensure that high intensity or endurance events should not take place in adverse conditions of heat or humidity. If events are to occur in hot climates, they should take place in the early morning before conditions deteriorate.
- Alter training times. Unless trying to acclimatize, the athlete should avoid exercise at the hottest time of the day.
- Wear appropriate clothing. In hot conditions, the athletes should wear a minimal amount of loose-fitting, light-colored clothing. An open weave or mesh top is ideal. Many athletes choose to remove their top during training in hot conditions. This has the advantage of allowing better heat loss from sweating but is counterbalanced by an increased heat gain from the environment.
- Drink plenty of fluids before the event. The athlete should ensure that he or she is adequately hydrated in the 24 hours prior to the event. A good method of confirming this is to ensure that urine output is clear and of good volume. Fluids should be drunk right up until the commencement of the exercise. It is recommended that 500 mL of fluid be drunk in the half hour prior to exercise in the heat.
- Drink fluid during exercise. The athlete should drink at regular intervals during exercise. Ideally, 150-250 mL should be consumed every 15 minutes in hot conditions. This should occur whether the athlete is training or in competition. It is important that the athlete masters the technique of drinking while exercising. This should be practiced during training. For exercise up to 1 hour in duration, plain water is the most appropriate form of fluid. For exercise lasting longer than 1 hour, a dilute glucose and electrolyte solution should be used.
- Ensure athletes are well educated. It is important that athletes/clients understand the importance of adequate hydration, the danger of water intoxication, and the need to avoid excessive environmental conditions.
- Provide proficient medical attention when warranted.
All fitness and coaching professionals are responsible for their client’s safety. Safety always must precede results and fun. In an outdoor environment, safety can be more challenging. In a gym environment, the temperature is stable, the floor is level, there is little chance of an animal bite, the equipment has multiple adjustment options and it can be easier to monitor your client’s physiological responses to exercise.
In the outdoors, many additional considerations must be made to ensure a client’s safety. The ground may change from hard to soft after crossing over a certain point. Surfaces may be wet, icy, hot, oily, sticky or abrasive. Handrails used for support may actually be loose causing a person to slip. A table may have a loose top or a seat that is not attached well. A trail may have snakes. If a client were to fall on a trail, you must know how to treat an injury when help may be several minutes or an hour away
Basic Safety While Running Outdoors – Pass these tips on to your clients
- Never wear headphones while running. They make you less aware of your surroundings. And it makes it more difficult to hear cars or another person running behind you. Headphones can make you vulnerable to all
sorts of mishaps such as injuries, attacks from criminals and collisions with vehicles.
- Remain constantly aware of your surroundings. Avoid running in quiet spots or remotes areas and stay on busy and familiar routes or parks. If you must run in the early morning hours, or late evening, make sure
you stay in well-lighted areas.
- Make sure you tell someone of your running route and what time you’ll be back.
- Alternate your routine so that you’re not running the same route on the same day.
- Run with a partner when possible – if not; take your dog which can be a deterrent to a criminal!
- Always run facing on-coming traffic.
- Crossroads at crossings and always be aware of traffic lights. Make sure you make eye contact before with the driver before crossing in front of a car.
- Leave jewelry at home – this can put you at risk from muggings.
- Take change for the phone or your mobile in case of emergencies (keep it tucked in shorts, pocket or special running pocket that attaches to your shoe).
- Always carry identification (with current address) or write your name and phone number on your shoes.
- Wear light or reflective clothing.
Allergy, Asthma and Exercise Facts
Regular exercise is beneficial for everyone and maybe particularly helpful for individuals with asthma and other allergic diseases. Though many people with asthma avoid exercise because they fear an asthma episode, a well-planned exercise program can improve their overall physical and emotional well being and help them manage their asthma symptoms. Here are some exercise tips for allergic patients:
An exercise program should be planned in consultation with an allergist-immunologist or other physicians. The doctor can advise which activities may provoke asthma or other allergic symptoms, and how to treat the symptoms.
Exercise-induced asthma symptoms such as tightness in the chest, coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath may be controlled by using an inhaled bronchodilator before exercising.
The nose should be clear when exercising. The nasal passages act as natural filters and humidifiers to keep the air at proper temperatures and filter out pollutants, irritants, and allergens. The proper use of medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, or prescription nasal sprays can help.
With proper medical supervision, patients with asthma can train for any sport. Stop-and-go exercises such as wrestling, weight training, softball, and doubles tennis are usually considered best for people with asthma. Warm, humidified air from the water makes swimming an ideal sport for allergy and asthma-prone athletes.
Avoid outdoor exercise in cold, windy weather or when pollen counts are high. Exercising near fields of grass and weeds, or in areas where there are high levels of respiratory irritants, such as tobacco smoke, car exhaust or factory pollutants, also may aggravate symptoms of asthma or allergic diseases.
A person with a known severe allergy to insect stings should always carry injectable epinephrine when exercising outdoors.
When exercising indoors, stay away from open windows and doors to limit contact with outdoor allergens. Use a mat if exercising on carpeting, which can harbor allergy triggers such as dust mites and animal dander.
Limit exercise during periods when symptoms of asthma or allergic diseases are severe and may be aggravated by increased activity.
Rosacea (pronounced roh-ZAY-sha) is a common but little-known disorder of the facial skin that affects an estimated 14 million Americans — and most of them don’t know it. In fact, while rosacea is becoming increasingly widespread as the populous baby boom generation enters the most susceptible ages, a Gallup survey found that 78 percent of Americans have no knowledge of this condition, including how to recognize it and what to do about it.
Because of its red-faced, acne-like effects on personal appearance, however, it can cause significant psychological, social and occupational problems if left untreated.
In recent surveys by the National Rosacea Society, nearly 70 percent of rosacea patients said this condition had lowered their self-confidence and self-esteem, and 41 percent reported it had caused them to avoid public contact or cancel social engagements. Among rosacea patients with severe symptoms, nearly 70 percent said the disorder had adversely affected their professional interactions, and nearly 30 percent said they had even missed work because of their condition.
While the cause of rosacea is unknown and there is no cure, today medical help is available that can control the signs and symptoms of this potentially life-disruptive disorder. Any one of the following warning signs is a signal to see a dermatologist or other knowledgeable physician for diagnosis and appropriate treatment before the signs and symptoms become increasingly severe:
- Redness on the cheeks, nose, chin or forehead.
- Small visible blood vessels on the face.
- Bumps or pimples on the face.
- Watery or irritated eyes.
Since the arrival of spring naturally draws people outside, here are some tips for enjoying outdoor exercise while minimizing rosacea flare-ups.
Consider the potential for a rosacea flare-up. Over-exertion is a common rosacea trigger for many. In a survey of rosacea patients, exercise caused flare-ups in 55 percent of runners, and 46 percent of cyclers and swimmers. In contrast, golf only caused flare-ups for 29 percent of those participating.
Pick your time and location. If you select a potentially high-risk activity like running or cycling, go out in early morning or evening when the air is cooler, and try shaded trails and parks instead of hot asphalt. Always protect your skin from the sun.
Lower your intensity, increase your frequency. Break up your outdoor exercise routine. If you plan to run an hour, stop and walk every 20 minutes. Add more rest time for a harder workout.
Cool down before and after. Before you work out, try one of these cool-down tactics — chew ice chips, sip a cold water bottle, drape a cold towel or ice pack around your neck, periodically spray your face with cold water, or wear sweatbands doused in cold water. Take a cool shower after your workout. Consider aqua aerobics.
Hay fever is the commonest form of allergy in the U.S. affecting up to 20% of the population of the U.S. It is an allergy to pollen. Hay is produced from grass, and grass pollen is the most common culprit for producing hay fever symptoms, but tree pollen, flower pollen, and fungal spores (the fungus equivalent of pollen) also produce the same symptoms in sensitive people.
Allergic rhinitis is the medical word for hay fever – but the medical word covers more than just the pollen allergy of hay fever. It also includes other allergies which produce the same symptoms, and also those that can go on all year round. House dust mites are minute insects living in most of our homes. Many people are allergic to this, and it can produce hay fever symptoms all year round. Pets and other animals produce dust from their skin which many people are allergic to. Feathers in duvets or pillows produce the same dust. The treatment is the same for all. As with any allergy, it will not go away. Try to find what it is that you are allergic to, and avoid it whenever you can. The more you expose yourself to the problem – the more you will react to it. Some other things can also give the same symptoms – eating a curry, alcohol, some medicines, and some emotional states.
Hay fever is also called a ‘summer cold’ – but it is an allergy, while a cold is caused by a virus. The symptoms can be the same though, with sneezing and a runny nose, but hay fever will not cause a fever, despite its name. The timing of the symptoms is the best guide to decide which is which. Colds only last a week or two, and are usually in the winter, while hay fever causes symptoms which can last longer, and can come and go, depending on the pollen levels each day, and are normally at the same time each year, in the spring and summer.
The nose is the main target for hay fever. Pollen is breathed in and sticks on the inside of the nose. If you are allergic to that pollen the nose lining will react. This reaction causes the release of chemicals, the main one being histamine. These chemicals trigger the body’s defenses and cause inflammation. Inflammation can go through three stages.
- Sneezing – this is caused by irritation of the nose lining, and is the body’s natural reaction to blow out the thing causing the irritation.
- Runny nose – the lining of the nose is now starting to swell and produce a watery liquid to wash out the irritation. If this is not successful.
- Blocked nose will result when the swelling of the lining of the nose combined with the now thicker mucus, gets so far as to start to block the air going through the nose. This is nasal congestion.
- The eyes can also be affected and can become red and itchy, and start to water.
The mouth, throat, and ears can more rarely be affected. The roof of the mouth can become itchy. The throat can react by causing a cough. The ears can itch. All these reactions are the same allergic reactions that happen in the nose and eye.
There is some genetic link in hay fever. You are more likely to develop it if your parents had hay fever, or if they suffered from other allergic conditions such as eczema or asthma. So if your brother or sister already suffers from hay fever, then you may well have inherited the same sensitivity from your parents. Similarly, if you had eczema or asthma as a child this makes you more likely to develop hay fever, and this is often the pattern that shows itself for someone who suffers from allergies. The peak age for hay fever is late teens and twenties. After that, it usually gets gradually better, but may always give you some symptoms, especially in years with high pollen counts.
The way we live may have some effect on the development of hay fever. We are all exposed to many things every day that can cause us to become allergic to them, but most people don’t. Our modern lifestyle could expose us to more of these allergy-triggering substances. This allergy overload causes more people to become allergic to something. This could explain the increase in hay fever over recent years.
Treating hay fever is important to allow you to minimize the symptoms, and let you get on with your life, and stop it being a misery. Hay fever cannot be cured but the symptoms can be controlled.
A few people seem to get asthma attacks only when they run or take on other “high-demand” exercises. Doctors used to think this was a separate form of asthma. But it is very usual for people with asthma to have this happen to them. This ‘exercise-induced asthma’ is especially a problem for young people. In fact, doctors used to puzzle over why children got exercise-induced asthma and why adults did not.
Eventually, the research discovered the reason; adults don’t take nearly so much exercise! We now think that people who get asthma attacks only when they take exercise just have asthma which is too mild to show up most of the time, needing the extra provocation from faster breathing to bring it out.
Exercise is just one of many things that show that the air passages are irritable in asthma.
If you have asthma, your air passages are irritable. This means things that are harmless to other people may trigger an attack of asthma. So you might get asthma from:
- Cold air, if you move from warm indoor air to cold air outdoors.
- Tobacco smoke
- Emotional stress. Although there seems to be no really good research on this, people with asthma often say their asthma gets worse if they are upset.
- Infections of the lining of the breathing passages, such as colds and flu. Some drugs, especially medicines called “beta-blockers” used for high blood pressure or heart disease.
- Laughing. This can actually happen!
- Irritants in asthma inhalers. Strange, but true. Some powder inhalers can cause a small amount of chest tightness. Pressurized aerosol inhalers need to have a lubricant and this can cause worsening of air passage narrowing, occasionally bad enough to be noticeable. Breathing tests. Just as the faster breathing in exercise can bring on attacks, the faster and deeper breathing you have to do for most breathing tests can bring on quite a noticeable worsening of airway narrowing in a few people.
- Sulfur dioxide used as a preservative in soft drinks and wine. This can cause chest tightening within seconds of drinking, or even breathing the air above such a drink.
- Indigestion, with stomach acid coming up into your gullet. This is called gastro-oesophageal reflux.
- Histamine or methacholine aerosols. In specialized tests, doctors use an inhaled mist of these substances to measure how irritable your air passages are. In asthma, they are more irritable than normal. During allergic or asthmatic reactions cells in the lungs release histamine. Methacholine mimics the effect of a substance (acetylcholine) released by nerves in the lung during asthma. Both substances cause an asthma attack in anyone who breathes enough of them, but people who have asthma will get an attack from a much smaller amount. In the test, the amount of asthma produced is small and very bearable, and it wears off quickly. The result gives us a measurement which can be very useful.
To some extent, people differ in which of these things cause the most asthma. Nevertheless, they all reflect the irritability of the air passages in asthma, even if some of them do so in somewhat different ways.
So exercise is just one of many things which can provoke narrowing of the air passages in asthma. It is just one of many things which reveal the abnormal irritability or ‘twitchiness’ of the air tubes which is an important feature of asthma. The medical term for this ‘twitchiness’ is ‘hyperreactivity’.
Are some kinds of exercise worse than others?
If you take different kinds of exercise so that you use the same amount of oxygen in each one, some will cause more wheeziness or chest tightness than others. Running outdoors will, in general, be worse than swimming. In fact, swimming is one of the best forms of exercise for people with asthma because it usually causes the least amount of chest tightness. Running indoors on a treadmill, or cycling on an indoor exercise bike will come somewhere between outdoor running and swimming.
Other factors influence the amount of worsening of your breathing which you get from a particular form of exercise. Generally for example, if the air you breathe is cold and dry, asthma will be worse. If it is warm and moist, asthma will be less bad. This explains why swimming generally causes less asthma than outdoor running.
Some people get worsening of their asthma from the chlorine fumes from swimming baths. This is another factor that can affect the result, and for such people swimming in a chlorinated pool is much worse than running.
The timing of the exercise is important. It takes about six minutes of exercising to bring on exercise-induced asthma, and exercising for quite a bit less than this may not do it.
For a few hours after you have had exercise-induced asthma, repeating the same amount of exercise will no longer produce the same amount of asthma symptoms or may produce none at all.
So you may be able to ‘run through’ your exercise-induced asthma either by warming up with short bursts of exercise or by continuous exercise which does not bring on a severe attack. Sports and exercises which consist of short bursts of activity with periods of rest in between can be particularly suitable for people with asthma. Examples include relay races and team sports in which you are not running all the time.
Exercise-induced asthma is an excellent example of a problem that you can begin to solve once you understand it better.
What is it about exercise that makes asthma worse?
The last time I read this up, the evidence was that increased
breathing during exercise causes cooling and drying of the lining of
the air passages and that these are necessary for someone to get
exercise-induced asthma. This explains why warm moist air protects against exercise-induced asthma.
Nobody knows exactly why the drying and cooling of the airway linings cause the asthma episode.
Exercise-induced asthma can be useful!
Well, of course, you would rather not have asthma of any kind, however ‘useful’. But seriously, exercise-induced asthma can be useful for diagnosing asthma in a child. Exercising a child for about 6 minutes is a convenient and safe way of provoking a mild asthma attack, and this has led to many children getting early and appropriate advice and treatment. We can exploit this feature of asthma to help defeat asthma.
Exercise-induced asthma has also been useful in asthma research. It can be used for testing medicines which may help asthma.
Athletes and Exercise-Induced Asthma
A lot of athletes, especially skiers and runners, get exercise-induced asthma. This may be partly because an amount of asthma which does not matter to most people can mean the difference between winning and losing to an athlete. So it may simply be that athletes notice the condition when other people overlook it. The other reason may be that the same underlying disease process goes unnoticed in non-athletes because they simply never exercise to the degree athletes do.
If you are an athlete and have this problem it is worth getting top-level specialist expertise to help you solve it. Just as you train to levels of fitness which ordinary people don’t even think about, so it is worth getting the best advice to help you break the barrier which poorly treated exercise asthma can pose. Many Olympic gold medal winners have been asthmatic and have suffered from exercise-induced asthma. With the right help and self-discipline, the problem can often be overcome.
Should people with asthma avoid exercise?
No, definitely not. In fact, enjoyable exercise is even more important for someone with asthma than for other people.
Children with asthma have in the past often been asked to sit on the sidelines whilst their classmates played games and did sports. This is completely wrong if there is any reasonable way in which the child can be made fit enough to take part. What is true for children is also true for adults.
Asthma attacks are hard work. One of the dangers in an asthma attack is fatigue, which may make you weaken in your fight to breathe. Obviously, it is good to have strong breathing muscles, because strong muscles tire less easily. Obviously, the way to get strong breathing muscles is to take exercise. Far from being prevented from getting exercise, people with asthma should take as much exercise as they can enjoyably manage. With care and understanding, this will be much more than most outsiders think possible. Good medications and intelligent use of the tricks for getting around the problem of exercise-induced asthma can achieve tremendous results.
What can I do about exercise-induced asthma?
You will already have picked up some useful clues. Swimming rather than running, warmer and moister air, warm-up by short periods of exercise, and getting into training can all help.
Cross-country skiers sometimes wear breathing masks which store the heat and moisture from the air they breathe out and then return it to the air they breathe in. This is helpful in avoiding exercise-induced asthma.
Good control of your asthma, whether by breathing in a ‘preventer’ treatment or by avoiding causes of asthma such as house dust mites and pets can have a tremendously helpful effect on exercise-induced asthma.
Reliever inhalers can be tremendously helpful if you use them just before exercise begins. This applies especially to the so-called ‘beta-2 stimulants’ such as salbutamol (albuterol) or terbutaline. The benefit should last for hours.
Long-acting reliever inhalers are also very helpful; they just work for longer.
If you (or someone you are training)is a competitive athlete, you may be concerned about disqualification because of drug use. The good news is that all the ordinary asthma medicines, used in the medically recommended way and dosage, are acceptable to sports bodies provided you use them correctly for asthma.
Poison Oak – A Plant to Avoid
Poison Oak has earned for itself an indelible reputation; approach it always with care. Even those who have immunity may later lose it; better to be safe than sorry. Should you touch the twigs (even the bare twigs in winter) or leaves, rinse your hands immediately and wash with mild soap; this should remove oils. Remember to wash your dog if it has accompanied you, and wash your clothes as well.
Despite the consequences of its toxicity, poison oak is an interesting — even attractive — deciduous shrub. Thriving on disturbance, it has ventured into a wide range of different plant communities, behaving in each one according to circumstances: near the coast it lies prostrate next to the ground; in bright light it forms a dense shrub; in shade it climbs toward the sun, often ascending thirty to forty feet up a tree.
New growth is signaled in early spring by a flush of glossy reddish new leaves. By mid-spring, dangling chains of whitish-green flowers perfume the air, attracting bees for pollination. This perfume is harmless to humans and actually enhances many a spring outing. By summer, there are whitish berries the birds consume, and in fall the foliage turns a brilliant red before falling. When leaves color up in summer, it’s a sign that the dry period has stressed the shrubs, telling them it’s time to lose leaves before they lose too much water. Out of leaf, poison oak may be identified by the long upright main branches with short, stubby side branches.
Since allergic reactions to poison oak are unpredictable, one should avoid contact with the plant, both leaves, and branches. Anyone with known sensitivity who is hiking in infested areas may wish to apply the preparation Ivy Block (which prevents the oil from being absorbed by the skin) before starting a hike, but usually, long-sleeve shirts and trousers-plus due wariness on the trail are sufficient precautions. Urushiol is absorbed into the skin within minutes after contact; hence the recommended washing of affected skin after contact apparently has limited benefit. Redness and blisters appear after about 24 hours and can linger for two weeks. Calamine lotion applied to itch, inflamed skin can have a soothing effect.
99% of the time, you will never have to worry about the above health considerations. But, you need to be knowledgeable. Just gain the knowledge, build your business and enjoy the rewards.
Even if you studied eight hours a day for the rest of your life, you would still not even come close to knowing everything there is to know. Please, never get to the point of thinking you know it all.
Take note of the areas that you should strengthen and gain more education. Then, strengthen them and educate yourself. Always be a student.
Set Goals for Your Outdoor Fitness and Coaching Business
Set goals for yourself, continually. As you reach a goal, set another, and then another. Goals are your map for getting where you want to go. Imagine packing up your car for a long road trip. Your car has a full tank of gas. Everyone is ready. But, you don’t have any idea on where you are going. You need a destination and a map on how to get there, right?
It is the same thing in life, and more specifically with your business. If you don’t have a destination, and a map on how to get there…how will you ever get anywhere?
- Attainable goals are specific. Be specific! If you want to increase your net worth by 25% in 12 months, then make that your goal. Not, just “I want to make more money.” That is too vague. Making one cent more than last year’s income is more money, right? But, it is probably not what you had in mind. So, be specific. Encourage your clients to do the same. Often times they say, “I want to lose weight and firm up.” Okay, great. Let’s now get specific and create an attainable, specific goal like, “I want to drop two dress sizes by August.” We must be EXACT and SPECIFIC in where we want to go. Our brain can help us accomplish almost anything if it knows precisely what we are aiming for, and where we want to go. It’s kind of like the GPS systems in our modern day automobiles. We set where we want to go, and it tells us where to turn to get there. When we set a specific goal, we also set directions on how to get there. When we follow those directions, we reach our goal…our destination, and on time.
- Attainable goals are simple and realistic. For someone with a high school education to set a goal of becoming a brain surgeon within one year is not realistic. For someone to say they want to retire at the age of 55, move to France and relax! That isn’t simple, but its possible Remember, simple doesn’t always mean easy. Simple here is meant as the opposite of complex.
- Attainable goals are your goals. Make sure the goal you have set and are working towards is something YOU really want, not just something that sounds good or someone else has imposed upon you. When setting goals it is very important to remember that your goals must be consistent and congruent with YOUR values. If your prime objective and passion in life is to help people, then let your goals revolve around that. If someone else thinks you should retire at 55, then move to France and relax, that may not fit into your prime objective. If that is the case, then, don’t let that be YOUR goal. No one can rally enough enthusiasm, hard work and courage to reach a goal they don’t really care about. A successful and attainable goal is one you really, REALLY want! It’s something that will change your life, enhance your health or wealth, and make you proud. It gets you up in the morning, and keeps you going all day long, because it is important! It is important to YOU. Set goals that are worth achieving, to YOU!
- Attainable goals have strategy. For example, if your goal is to increase your net worth by 25% in 12 months, then you should have a strategy on how to make that happen. Then add the strategic impact of what obtaining that goal will provide. An example could be living in a better home within a better school district, having more time to spend with your family, having more money to help your favorite charity, having more money and time to go on extravagant vacations, to have the freedom to breathe and not worry about the bills each month…whatever it is. Design your goals to strategically impact as many areas of your life as possible. You’ll have more reasons to reach your goals and more excitement when you do!
- Attainable goals are measurable. Define your goals in terms of measurement. Size, dollars, percentage, inches, weight, and time are all measurable. Measure your progress until you achieve your desired goal. You need to be able to measure your progress so you know you are on the right track and moving in the right direction. A goal without a measurable outcome is just a pipe-dream.
- Attainable goals are tangible. Choose goals that you can clearly visualize. Go for things that you can see, hear, smell, taste or touch. Your goals must make sense! When you explain them to friends and family, your goals should create excitement, draw support, and encouragement. Not because you are falsely manifesting this, but because your passion exudes! Define your goals in terms that excite the senses, and then go for it with all of your heart! Tangible goals are realistic. They could be a fantasy dream; but not usually. If you have a goal to be the next international pop star, you should be able to at least sing well before creating that goal for yourself. If you really want it, reach for the stars…then work backwards on how to get there. Never, say never. Go for the impossible…if you really, really want it! You can achieve your heart’s desire, otherwise it wouldn’t be in your heart and you wouldn’t want it so bad! Set your goals high enough. How horrible it would be for you to underestimate your potential. Set goals that you really want and believe in. Then, acknowledge them, set steps in reaching them and know you CAN and WILL achieve them!
- Attainable goals are written. Write your goal down in great detail. You got that, right? Write them down, AND IN GREAT DETAIL. Position your goals in the positive sense instead of the negative. Work for what you want, not for what you want to avoid or leave behind.
- Attainable goals have focus. The more focused you are on your goals the more likely you are to accomplish them. The act of writing down your goals will set the process in motion. However, it is also important to review your goals frequently. Sometimes we realize we have to revise a goal as circumstances and other goals change. Review and make note of your progress on a regular basis. Set a day each week, or even a time each day to do so.
- Attainable goals are shared. When we share our goals and our friends and family that are supporting us, it is easier to stick to the plan. However, you should NOT share your goals with anyone who may doubt, ridicule, tease or discourage you! We have no time for negative influences. Surround yourself with a solid support team of winners.
- Attainable goals support your value system. If there is a conflict between your behavior and your values, there may be a conflict in reaching your goals. Your values, behavior and goals should all be in alignment with each other. First, clarify your values. Then, each time you need to make a decision, ask yourself what will take you closer to your goal. Then make the right decision. Following this process everyday you will allow you to achieve unlimited success in every aspect of your life.
Check out what it takes to start a career in personal fitness training. This is your most affordable and fastest way to become a highly qualified personal trainer.
PURSUIT is your outdoor fitness business system.
THIS IS THE BUSINESS FOR THE POST COVID-19 WORLD.
With the new surge of bodyweight training becoming a popular component of mainstream fitness and the “simplification” of exercise, you are in the right place at right time to offer an alternative to cramped gym-based workouts. Instead, you can offer creativity, challenge, excitement, and results as a Certified PURSUIT trainer.
There is always something exciting about earning a new training or coaching certification and applying that new knowledge of how you train your clients. This also helps you hit the reset button.
NESTA coaching programs are open to anyone with a desire to learn and help others. There are no prerequisites.
That’s it for now.
Take action and take control of your future as a professional coach and/or trainer!